In this essay we shall sometimes refer to the EU as the Project to reflect the fact that it is an uncompleted process. We shan’t pretend that we present a balanced view: we omit much that is good about the EU, mainly because we are unaware of much that is good about the EU; that is because the benefits may exist only in details obscure to outsiders (i.e. most of its citizens). The case for EU, such as it is, is better made by others.
We will draw upon the Five Presidents Report (see References *1), or 5PR for short, to illustrate the future direction of the EU. This document was issued in July 2015 and written by the EU’s principal functionaries, the presidents of the Commission, Council, Bank, Eurozone and Parliament. It was followed up by a Communication from the Commission (*2), which we also cite.